Construction of the questionnaire involved adapting questions from a review of existing literature that had looked at the reasons behind children’s purchases from fast food takeaway outlets.3 , 4 , 15 , 16 Participants were asked to self-report their gender, age, date of birth and ethnicity. 17 Free school meal entitlement was used as a proxy measure of deprivation in our survey, and it is also commonly used to investigate schoolchildren families’ income level.3 , 18 Participants were also asked how often they would purchase food/drinks from fast food takeaway outlet over a week period. Previous studies have also used this type of question to define frequency of fast food consumption.3 , 4 Participants were asked to indicate what portion size of chips they would normally purchase. Participants were asked to rank their three most popular types of beverages they would normally purchase. Participants were also asked to report their average level of physical activity during weekends and weekdays on the same questionnaire. Response options include from <2 h, 2–5 h and 5 h or more per day.
A great pilot study of the newest questionnaire are through with a small attempt from people (n=30) aged several–13 age. Guidance on airplane pilot analysis provided rewording all the questions getting top know and to limitation what number of unlock-concluded questions. The newest questionnaire is distributed in both universities between and was finished by 193 students. The new questionnaire was designed to be notice-given. Educated lookup personnel were available to help youngsters exactly who requisite let that have insights or studying all the questions.
Anthropometric measurements was indeed accumulated by the trained browse assistants. Level was mentioned toward nearby millimetre playing with SECA Leicester portable peak scale (stadiometer). Every users was in fact trained to get rid of their shoes prior to the height is actually removed also to line-up its head regarding the Frankfurt plane.19 Lbs is actually counted to the nearby 0.1 kg playing with calibrated Lbs Audience Simple Realize Reliability electronic bills (model: 8961U). Participants was coached to remove the boots and you may outerwear, which is, outdoor jacket, and stay inside their uniform before they were considered. Self-stated proportions had been excluded about data studies put as they was indeed believed to be unreliable. Body mass index (BMI) are extracted from measured level and you will pounds of one’s college students and determined by using the following formulae: Bmi kilogram/yards dos = pounds (kg)/height2 (metres). Bmi percentile getting decades and you will intercourse in accordance with the validated Uk 1990 site analysis maps try determined, taking into consideration time regarding birth and you will go out out-of dimensions.20–23 Percentile ranging from 85th and you will 95th percentile was defined as over weight and ?95th percentile are defined as over weight.twenty-four , twenty-five One hundred and twenty-one to schoolchildren had done study having formula off Bmi percentile to own decades and you may gender.
Studies was basically analysed playing with SPSS V. (SPSS Inc.). Abilities revealed are either demonstrated since form ± SD, average (range) otherwise frequencies (percentages). Analytical importance is actually taken if p well worth try ?0.05. Categorical variables was compared utilizing the ? 2 ensure that you persisted parameters with the Kruskal–Wallis attempt.
The mean respondent age was 12.8 (range 11–14) years old and 56% of the respondents were male (table 1). The ethnic background of the study population was mainly Asians (48.3%) and Black/African-Carribeans (19.4%), reflecting the sampling region. Majority of the sampled population (61%) was entitled to free school meals. About one in three respondents (30.6%) was classified as being overweight or obese. Thirty-two per cent of the males were classified as being overweight or obese as compared with 29% of the females. About half of the sampled population (54%) reported that they usually purchased food or drinks from fast food or takeaway outlets more than two to three times a week. About half of the schoolchildren (48%) would spend 2 per visit.